Established in June, 1984, the city of Panjin prospers as result of oil. It is now a city of petrochemical industries. PetroChina Liaohe oilfield has its headquarters here. The rivers of Liao, Daliao and Daling – the mother rivers of Liaoning province – empty into the sea not far from the city. The geographical environment where the rivers and seas meet nurturs an expansive area of wetland stretching for hundreds of kilometers. It is known for the natural wonder of red beaches. It is also known as the “city of wetlands”, the “town of cranes”, as well as the land of fish and rice.
Panjin is situated between 121°25′ E and 122°31′ E, as well as 40°39′ N and 41°27′ N in southwestern Liaoning. It is in the heartland of Liao River delta, and adjacent to Anshan in the north and northeast. The river of Daliao separates Panjin from the city of Yingkou in the southeast. The city of Jinzhou is in the west and northwest. To the south lies the Liaodong Gulf of the Bohai Sea.
Lying in the northeast of Bohai Economic rim, and being the vital part of Northeast Asia economic circle, Panjin is a key point linking the three economic plates in the south, west and center of Liaoning province. Panjin is in a 2-hour economic circle with other major cities in Liaoning. After Beijing-Shenyang Passenger Line begins operations, Panjin will be a major radiation area within a 2-hour economic circle established according to the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei synergistic development strategy.
Panjin has a flat terrain with many rivers. There is no mountain within its domain. It lies in a Cenozoic sedimentary basin formed as result of accumulation of fluvial materials in northeast China in the ancient times from the "Yanshan Movement". It is high in the east, and low in the south. The topography descends gradually from the north to south, with a gradient of 1: 10000, as well as a slope degree within 2°. At the maximum of 18.2m, and 0.3m at the minimum, the average height above the sea level is about four meters.
21 natural rivers snake across Panjin, with a total length of 634km, and a total drainage area of 3570km2. There are four large rivers, including Liao, Daliao, Raoyang, and Daling, as well as 17 mid- or small-sized rivers, including Jinpan, Xisha, Yueya, Xinkai, Taiping, and Yitong.
There are seven reservoirs, including six mid-sized and one small-sized reservoirs which have a total storage capacity of 151m cubic meters, including a utilizable capacity of 102m cubic meters.
The total water resources reach 336m cubic meters, including 243m cubic meters of surface water, and 93m cubic meters of underground water.
Panjin has a total area of land reaching 4102.9km2.
Classified according to the use of land, there are 2183.5km2 of arable land, 709.8km2 of land designated for construction, and 1209.6km2 of unutilized land.
Classified according to the ownership of land, there are 3634.5km2 of state-owned land, and 468.4km2 of collectively-owned land.
The marine area is 1425km2.
The coastline is 107km long.
The area of coastal beaches is 392km2.
Abundant resources of oil, natural gas, well salt and other minerals are deposited underground. Since the exploration and development of Liaohe oilfield in the 1960’s, 2.1bn tons of oil and 178.4bn cubic meters of natural gas have been successively ascertained. There are 32 oil and gas fields, and 12 oil and gas production entities.
The production of crude oil and natural has steadily kept the record output of over 10 million tons for 33 years consecutively. For example, the production of crude oil was 9.911m tons, and natural gas 570m cubic meters in 2018.
With the general burial depth being at between 30m and 100m, the resource of natural brine scatters across an area of 150km2. The reserve of natural brine which has a mineralization degree at 30-60g/liter totals 1.329bn cubic meters.
Panjin has an abundant reserve of wetland. Besides the rice fields, there are 2496km2 wetland, including 2165km2 of natural wetland, and 331km2 of human-made wetland. There are 1240km2 of protected wetland, accounting for 57.4% of the area of natural land. There are one state-level wetland, one province-level wetland, two state-level parks of wetland, one province-level park of important wetland and three province-level parks of wetland.
The Natural Reserve at Liao River estuary covers 800km2, and is included into the U.N. list of important international wetlands.
446 species of wild animals inhabit on the expansive wetland. It’s the important stopover habitat for red-crowned cranes migrating between the north and south. It’s the largest breeding ground around the globe for Saunders's gulls. It’s also the important breeding place for spotted seals.
Panjin is the northern temperate zone, where the semi-humid continental monsoon climate prevails. It has the characteristics, such as four distinct seasons, hot and rain in the same season, dry and cold at the same time, appropriate temperature, as well as abundant sunshine. The temperature averaged 9.9℃ in 2018, and the amount of precipitation was 446.6mm in the same year.
Panjin administers one county, such as Panshan, and three administrative districts, such as Shuangtaizi, Xinglongtai, and Dawa.
It has 21 rural towns, 35 sub-districts, 292 administrative villages, and 237 administrative communities.
The Panshan county administers three sub-districts and nine rural towns which have 18 administrative communities and 148 administrative villages.
The Shuangtaizi district administers six sub-districts and two rural towns which have 32 administrative communities and 18 administrative villages.
The Xinglongtai district administers 18 sub-districts which have 106 administrative communities and 19 administrative villages.
The Dawa district administers eight sub-districts and 10 rural towns which have 81 administrative communities and 107 administrative villages.
Nationalities & Population
There was a permanent resident population of 1.439m at the end of 2018, among which 1.299m is registered population. There were 11301 new-born babies in 2018, and the birth rate was 8.698‰ in the same year. 6677 persons died in 2018, and the mortality rate was 5.139‰ in the same year. And the natural population growth rate was 3.56‰ in 2018.
The population is dominated by the Han nationality, accounting for 93.66%. 38 nationalities, such as Manchu, Korean, Mongolian, Hui and Xibe live in Panjin, having a population of 82000.
Panjin leads Liaoning province in terms of various economic indicators or growth rates. It’s one of the most dynamic and promising cities in Liaoning, or even northeast China.
The gross regional domestic product was 121.66bn Yuan in 2018, increasing 5.9% on a year-on-year basis. The general public budget revenue was 13.57bn Yuan in 2018, increasing 14.2% on a year-on-year basis. The added value of enterprises above the designated scale was 59.53bn Yuan in 2018, increasing 11.8% on a year-on-year basis. The per capita disposable income of urban and rural residents was respectively 39111 Yuan, and 17136 Yuan, increasing 7.2%, and 7.5% on a year-on-year basis.
As the major base of petrochemical industrial sectors in Liaoning and northeast China, Panjin has an oil and gas extraction-based industrial layout, with petrochemical and fine chemical engineering playing the dominant role, and meanwhile, the industrial sectors, such as equipment manufacturing, light industry-oriented building materials, electronic information, further processing of grain and edible oil and other sectors display synergistic development.
There were 252 enterprises above the designated scale in 2018. Panjin ranked the 3rd in Liaoning in the same year in terms of added value generated by enterprises above the designated scale, as well as the increase rate. The main business revenue generated by enterprises above the designated scale was 255.83bn Yuan in 2018, increasing 24.4% on a year-on-year basis. For example, the main business revenue of the oil and gas extraction sector was 30.59bn Yuan in 2018, accounting for 11.9%; the main business revenue of the petrochemical and fine chemical engineering sector was 189.82bn Yuan, accounting for 74.2%; the main business revenue of the equipment manufacturing sector was 4.63bn Yuan, accounting for 1.8%; the main business revenue of the light industry-oriented building materials sector was 11.28bn Yuan, accounting for 4.4%; the main business revenue of the electronic information sector was 1.92bn Yuan, accounting for 0.8%.
There are approximately 2000km2 of shallow waters within 15m of depth contour along the coast. The resources, such as fish, shrimps and crabs and shells, are approximately between 40000 and 50000 tons, accounting for 70% of the total reserve in Liaodong Gulf. There are 1530km2 of fresh waters suitable for fresh water breeding.
Panjin is the production base of quality rice in China. The largest base for artificial incubating and breeding of river crabs in north China is located in Panjin. Rice, river crabs, globefish, loach and alkaline land-produced persimmons originated from Panjin are protected by the National Protection of Geographical Indications system. The total acreage for planting of rice in 2018 was 1.599m mu, with a yield of 1.042m tons. The total acreage for breeding of river crabs in 2018 was 1.6m mu, with a yield of 72000 tons, topping the list of prefecture-level cities in China. Panjin is known as “the 1st city of river crabs”.
There are 62 enterprises bearing the title of “leading enterprises in industrialization of agriculture”.
There are two industrial alliances of rice and river crabs.
There are one state-level modern industrial park of agriculture and one province-level pilot cluster area for processing of agricultural products.
Panjin has the largest cluster of state-owned farms in the province. For example, there are 27 state-owned farms and 232 branches, which have 832 km2 of arable land.
Panjin is a tourist city. As the only city in Liaoning bearing the title of “the 1st batch of region-wide demonstration area of tourism in China”, Panjin has a tourism-dominated service system characterized by synergistic development of modern logistics, commerce, trade, financial service and other service sectors.
The service industry posted an added value of 50.36bn Yuan in 2018.
Tourism is playing an increasing pillar role in the economy. There are 16 A-class scenic spots, including two AAAA scenic spots, 10 star-rated tourist hotels, and seven international brand hotels. There are over 2000 rural inns or country-style hotels, which can provide 8600 beds for the tourists. The gross revenue generated by tourism was 25.312bn Yuan in 2018.
Modern service sectors, such as e-commerce, trade and logistics are developing fast. For example, there are five province-level cluster areas of modern service sectors, one state-level logistics park, two distinctive commercial blocks (which enjoy the status of prioritized development in the province), and three province-level e-commerce platforms.
The banking industry has great potentials for development. There are 22 banking institutions, including three rural credit cooperative agencies and two rural banks. By the end of 2018, the total assets owned by the banking institutions reached 198.3bn Yuan, the balance of deposits 178.15bn Yuan, and balance of loans 95.79bn Yuan.
Opening to the outside world
Panjin is the main axis of Liaoning coastal eonomic belt. It’s an important node in the economic zone along the Bohai sea. It is also an important node city situated at the international pathways of import and export, such as "Liaoning-Mongolia-Europe", "Liaoning-Manzhouli-Europe", and "Liaoning-Xinjiang-Europe" lines. It is integrated by the province into the third core leading area, which is part of the "Belt & Road" comprehensive pilot zone.
With Panjin port as the core, new Liaodong Gulf district playing the dominant role, the major industrial parks serving as the foundation, as well as synergistic development of the county and districts, Panjin has developed a multi-directional pattern of opening up to the outside world. For example, the new Liaodong Gulf district is a state-level development zone.
There are four province-level development zones, such as Panjin Fine Chemical Engineering Development Zone, Panjin Economic Development Zone, Panjin Lingang Economic Development Zone, and Liaoning Industrial and Development Zone of New Materials.
Panjin has built 25 berths of 50000 tons or above, with an annual handling capacity of 70m tons.
Panjin is approved as the 1st-class open port for designated inspection and acceptance of imported grains.
Panjin opens 16 domestic and international direct air routes. It has built seven dry inland ports.
Actually-utilized foreign capital hit 259m Yuan in 2018, increasing 31.3% on a year-on-year basis. Total foreign trade value reached 16.87b Yuan, increasing 47.3% on a year-on-year basis.
Innovation & Entrepreneurship
Panjin is selected by the state council as the pilot city in terms of protection of intellectual properties.
The drive for innovation and entrepreneurship is being continuously unleashed.
There were 106648 self-employed or corporate market entities in 2018.
The regional GDP generated by privately-owned enterprises accounted for 39.5% in 2018.
There were 140 incubated small or mid-sized technology-based enterprises, 108 hi-tech enterprises, and 10 innovation-based leading enterprises in 2018.
Ownership of invention patents reached 577 pieces, and 54% of hi-tech enterprises above the designated scale owned patents in 2018. There were 18 entities of maker space in 2018, with a total incubation area of 270000m2, which accommodate more than 1200 enterprises and team groups.
R&D investment accounted for 2.12% of the regional GDP in 2017.
The added value of hi-tech products reached 14.4bn Yuan.
Focusing on synergistic development with other cities, Panjin intensifies the effort on urban construction and management, and consecutively wins the titles of “national sanitary city”, “national civilized city”, “national garden city” and other honorary titles.
By continuously improving the infrastructure, Panjin has built a transport framework made of railways, expressways and provincial arteries. Supplemented by county or town roads, oil field-specific roads, as well as roads of access into villages, Panjin has built a 3-D traffic network featuring four railway lines, four expressways, one ring road, seven longitudinal highways, and six transverse highways.
The railway operating mileage totals 260km, and highway mileage 4008km, and the density of highways reaches 98.5km/100km2, ranking the 3rd in the province.
The urban road-urban area ratio is 15.08%.
100% of urban dwellers have access to tap water.
100% of urban dwellers have access to fuel gas.
Garbage disposal rate reaches 100%.
Sewage treatment rate is 99%.
Urban green coverage reaches 43.18% in the urban area, with per capita green area standing at 14m2.
As an indicator of environment quality, the number of days of satisfactory air quality is 290, accounting for 79.5% of 365 days.
Panjin is selected by the province as a pilot city in urban-rural integration. It offers a relatively higher level of equalized public service for the people. For example, the roads of access to 323 administrative villages are 100% paved with asphalt; 100% of rural villagers have access to clean fuel; classified garbage disposal is widely promoted; the integrated environmental sanitation project won the China Habitat Environment Example Prize; focused on the theme of green development, Panjin has built 119 small-scale sewage disposal facilities; by promoting “toilet revolution”, Panjin has basically eliminated pit latrines which were widely used in the rural area; by promoting integration of public transport services, Panjin has 100% reached the target of providing bus service for people living within a 2-km semidiameter around any bus stop.
People’s Livelihood & Social Undertakings
The people live a decent life in Panjin. It’s the only city in the province that provides the same treatment for the poor in terms of distribution of the basic living allowance, whether they live in the urban or rural area.
For many years, Panjin keeps the lowest record in terms of registered urban employment rates, and dynamically, there is no zero-employment family.
Social insurances basically cover all the families.
The pensions keep increasing for 14 years consecutively, reaching 1743 Yuan/month per capita.
The subsidy provided by the public finance for people insured by the urban residents' basic medical insurance system, as well as the new rural cooperative medical system is respectively 520 Yuan, and 490 Yuan per capita per year.
There are 377 kindergartens, 117 educational institutions, including one “985” university - the campus of Dalian University of Technology.
There are 1194 medical institutions.
Medical alliances have realized full coverage of the people. Panjin tops the list in the province in terms of major health indicators.
There are six publicly-operated cultural or arts centers, and six public libraries.
Radio and television cover 100% of the people.
Demonstration & Pilot Projects
Adhering to standardized, normalized and serialized operations, at present, Panjin undertakes 16 state-level demonstrative or pilot projects. Out of the projects, seven are demonstration projects, such as the “demonstration city of development and reform of private economy in northeast China”, the “state-level demonstration city of region-wide tourism”, and the “state-level demonstration city of food safety”. There are also nine pilot projects, such as the “state-level pilot city of standardized public service”, the “state-level pilot city of cultural consumption”, and the “state-level pilot city for reform of home & community-based elderly service”.